The Republic of Kalmykia stretches to the south-east of the European part of Russia between the Volga and Don rivers. Its geographical position is between 41°40/-47°35/ (northern latitude) and 44°50/ -40°10/(eastern longitude).
It has borders with the Republic of Daghestan in the south, Stavropolskii region in the south-west, with Rostovskii and Volgogradskii regions in the west and north-west. Its eastern border with Astrakhanskii region is interrupted by a narrow opening to the Volga river, in the south-east it is washed by the Caspian Sea.
Kalmykia has the territory of 76.1 thousand square km. It stretches up to 423 km from the west to the east and up to 448 km from the north to the south. The distance between Moscow and Elista ( the capital of the republic) is 1836 km.
Most of its territory is covered with the plains of the north- western edge of the Caspian Coast depression. To the west there rises the Yergeninskii highland (its highest part is 218 m). From the north-west to the southeast there stretches the Kumo-Manich depression, the course of the strait which used to join the Caspian and Black seas in the ancient times. Nowadays there remain the valleys of the rivers Zapadnii (Western) Manich and Vostochnii (Eastern) Manich, the lower courses of the Kuma and numerous salt-water lakes and lagoons.
The climate of Kalmykia is continental. The average annual precipitation reaches 200-300 mm. The sunny period lasts for 2180- 2250 hours a year. Summers are hot and long with average temperatures from +22 degrees ó to 24 degrees ó sometimes rising up to 44 degrees C. There is little snow in winterwith average temperatures from -8 degrees ó to +3 degrees C, sometimes there may be short periods of frosty weather with temperature as low as -20 degrees C. Springs are often early and in May the temperature may rise up from +20 degrees C to +25 degrees C. September and early October are usually warm with short showers and the average temperature of +10 degrees C. This is the season when fruits and vegetables are in plenty.